Nutraceuticals are merged from two words i.e., nutrition and pharmaceutical in which nutrition means a nourishing food component like vitamins, minerals, fibres, fats, carbohydrates etc which are essentials for maintaining human health and pharmaceutical means a medical drug. Nutraceuticals are known as the food component or dietary supplement which provide the nourishment to human health and give the beneficial effects on various pathological diseases such as CVD (Cardiovascular disease), cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis and neurological disorders.
Nutraceuticals played a major role in maintaining overall well-being of human‘s health. Many bioactive molecules are identified to maintain health and research is going on, to discover more safe and cost-effective molecules for oral administration. These days nutraceuticals received significant attention due to safety, therapeutic effects and potential nutrition. Recent studies show that the nutraceuticals have favourable results in various pathological complications for example cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders and atherosclerosis. Many nutraceuticals have antioxidant activity so they are measured as a healthy source of health upgrade, principally prevention from life-threatening diseases for example infection, gastrointestinal and renal disorders, diabetes. The study reported that oral administration of pomegranate juice at a dose of 10 mL/ kg body weight for 2 weeks shows the significant rise in the index of depression in ovariectomized mice, honey (100 g/kg) in a diet for 52 weeks show significantly improved spatial memory and reduced anxiety in rats and honey also have used for treating depression, nociception, convulsion and hypnosis. Curcumin has the antidepressant activity.
The nutraceuticals products come in the category of potentia‖ products.
The plant material is digested by microflora (in the gut) but they are not hydrolyzed by the enzymes that secrete from the digestive tract, this type of material is called dietary fibers.
Mostly dietary fibers are non-starch polysaccharides like hemicelluloses, gums, and pectin, resistant starches, lignin, resistant dextrin, and celluloses. Fruits, oats, beans and barley
are some food materials which is a rich source of dietary fibers.
Antioxidants are the agents that help to prevent or delaying the oxidation of oxidizable substrates when are in lower concentration than the substrate. Antioxidants can be synthesized in vivo (e.g., reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), etc.) or taken as dietary antioxidants. Plants are the main source of dietary/exogenous antioxidants, two-thirds of the world‘s plant species have medicinal importance and also have the antioxidant potential.
Over 2000 years ago, the first intake of fermented milk as probiotics. Probiotics is a live microbial feed supplement i.e., administered in a suitable amount and it affects the host animal
and improves the intestinal microbial balance in the body. The bacteria in Probiotics are categorized in the following types: Lactobacilli like Lactobacilli acidophilus, Lactobacilli. Casey, Lactobacilli. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacilli. brevis, Lactobacilli. cellobiose.
Mainly the probiotics are formulated in the form of a gel, liquid, paste, capsules, powder, and granules, etc, and used to treat some type of infection such as gastrointestinal conditions
like lactose intolerance, acute diarrhea associated gastrointestinal side effects. The Probiotic agents are non-toxic, resistant to gastric acid, and also non-pathogenic in
nature and these probiotics adherence to gut epithelial tissues and produce antibacterial constituents. Probiotics help to decrease the risk of systemic conditions like asthma, allergy, cancer, and some types of infections like ear and urinary tract infection, etc.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids:
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA):
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are the essential fatty acids that are important for the body‘s functioning and these are introduced through diet. PUFAs are subdivided into 2 categories, omega-3- (n-3) fatty acids and omega-6-(n-6) fatty acids. The dynamic omega-3-fatty acid is DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), and ALA (α-linolenic acid),. The precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid is α-linolenic acid. The EPA and DHA are establishing in fatty fishes like salmon, trout, bluefin tuna, and mackerel and the main source of α-linolenic acid is some nuts, soybeans, red/black currant seeds, Flax seeds, and canola, etc. Omega-6PUFAs mainly involve of GLA (γ-linolenic acid), LA (linoleic acid) and ARA (arachidonic acid). Linoleic acid mainly found in vegetable oils for example sunflowers, corn and soybean, and animal products (meat, eggs, and poultry) are the rich source of arachidonic acid. Omega-3-fatty acids cause major effects in body like cardiovascular diseases, anti-arrhythmic disease, etc hypolipidemic and antithrombotic. The
benefits of Omega-3-fatty acids in pre-mature infant health, asthma, bipolar and depressive disorders, dysmenorrhea, and diabetes, and these Omega3-fatty acids show positive effects in different stages of life.